Radio Research: more than just ratings
Finding Out About the Audience 
    Arbitron is not the only kind of radio research.

Here are some explanations and references regarding both Arbitron ratings and "in house" research used to determine and refine programming.
Picture: The original and the new PPM devices, showing the relative size of each. 
Auditorium Music Tests
When a station wants to determine and verify what the right... and wrong... songs are, a music test is conducted.
New technologies include web-based testing, but like Arbitron's "Web Diary" there are control and response rate concerns.
Perceptual Research
Perceptual research involves interviewing individuals alone or in small groups. This may be done via focus groups of 8 to 12 people, one on one interviews or phone questionnaires 
Callout Research
Callout is a techique used to test small batches of songs, usually very current ones, via the phone. The internet is also being used successully to test new and current music categories from radio stations.
Arbitron Research
Click on one to open
a. Arbitron Reports and Statistics 
b. The Arbitron Diary 
c. Arbitron Market Ratings History 1975-2002